Joint Therapy

Application of platelet-rich gel to enhance wound healing in the horse: a case report
Iacopetti, I., Perazzi, A., Ferrari, V. and Busetto, R., 2012. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 32(3), pp.123-128.

Current treatments for traumatic synovitis, capsulitis, and osteoarthritis.
McIlwraith, C.W., Frisbie, D.D. and Kawcak, C.E., 2001. In Proceedings 47th Annual Meeting AAEP (pp. 180-206).

Developmental Joint Disease.
Dr Nicholas Kannegeiter BVSc, Dip VetClinStud, PhD, FACVSc

Effect of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan on osteoarthritic equine articular cartilage in explant culture.
Caron, J.P., Toppin, D.S. and Block, J.A., 1993.. American journal of veterinary research, 54(7), pp. 1116-1121.

Effects of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronan on prostaglandin E2 production by cultured equine synoviocytes.
Frean, S.P. and Lees, P., 2000. American journal of veterinary research, 61(5), pp. 499-505.

Evaluation of Pentosan Polysulfate

Evaluation of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan or sodium hyaluronan administered intra-articularly for treatment of horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis.
Frisbie, D.D., Kawcak, C.E., McIlwraith, C.W. and Werpy, N.M., 2009. American journal of veterinary research, 70(2), pp.203-209.

Experimental and clinical pharmacology of Pentosan Polysulfate.
Maffrand, J.P., Herbert, J.M., Bernat, A., Defreyn, G., Delebassee, D., Savi, P., Pinot, J.J. and Sampol, J., 1991. In Seminars in thrombosis and haemostasis (Vol. 17, p. 186).

Influence of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan on equine articular cartilage in explant culture.
Caron, J.P., Eberhart, S.W. and Nachreiner, R., 1991. American journal of veterinary research, 52(10), pp.1622-1625.

Management of joint disease in the sport horse.
McIlwraith, C.W., 2010. In Proceedings of the 2010 Kentucky Equine Research Nutrition Conference: Feeding and Veterinary Management of the Sports Horse (pp. 61-81).

Pentosan Polysulfate as a Disease Modifier of Cartilage Degeneration in Experimental Osteoarthritis.
Elmesiry, A.M., Seleim, M.A., Mansour, A.A. and Hill, D.C., 2016. J Arthritis, 5(199), p.2.

Results of a survey of equine practitioners on the use and perceived efficacy of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan.
Caron, J.P., Kaneene, J.B. and Miller, R., 1996. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(9), pp.1564-1568.

The pathobiology of osteoarthritis and the rationale for the use of Pentosan Polysulfate for its treatment.
Ghosh, P., 1999, February. In Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism (Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 211-267). WB Saunders.

C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD, FRCVS, Diplomate ACVS

What the equine practitioner needs to know about the biochemical manipulation of equine joint disease.
McIlwraith, C.W., 2008. In 10th International Congress of World Equine Veterinary Association.

A targeted lipidomics approach to the study of eicosanoid release in synovial joints.
de Grauw, J.C., van de Lest, C.H. and van Weeren, P.R., 2011. Arthritis research & therapy, 13(4), p.1.

The physical properties of synovial fluid and the special role of hyaluronic acid.
Balazs, E.A., 1974. Disorders of the Knee, 2, pp.61-74.

Systemic use of Pentosan Polysulphate in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Read, R.A., Cullis‐Hill, D. and Jones, M.P., 1996. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 37(3), pp.108-114.

Sodium pentosan polysulfate resulted in cartilage improvement in knee osteoarthritis-An open clinical trial.
Kumagai, K., Shirabe, S., Miyata, N., Murata, M., Yamauchi, A., Kataoka, Y. and Niwa, M., 2010. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 10(1), p.7.

Efficacy of oral calcium pentosan polysulphate for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the canine stifle joint secondary to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency.
Innes, J.F., Barr, A.R. and Sharif, M., 2000. The Veterinary Record, 146(15), pp.433-437.

Safety of Cartrophen Vet in the dog: review of adverse reaction reports in the UK.
Hannon, R.L., Smith, J.G., Cullis‐Hill, D., Ghosh, P. and Hope Cawdery, M.J., 2003. Journal of small animal practice, 44(5), pp.202-208.

Dose responsive effects of subcutaneous pentosan polysulfate injection in mucopolysaccharidosis type VI rats and comparison to oral treatment.
Frohbergh, M., Ge, Y., Meng, F., Karabul, N., Solyom, A., Lai, A., Iatridis, J., Schuchman, E.H. and Simonaro, C.M., 2014. PloS one, 9(6), p.e100882.

The chondroprotective drugs, arteparon and sodium pentosan polysulphate, increase collagenase activity and inhibit stromelysin activity in vitro.
Nethery, A., Giles, I., Jenkins, K., Jackson, C., Brooks, P., Burkhardt, D., Ghosh, P., Whitelock, J., O'Grady, R.L., Welgus, H.G. and Schrieber, L., 1992. Biochemical pharmacology, 44(8), pp.1549-1553.

A comparison of the lipolytic and anticoagulative properties of heparin and pentosan polysulphate in the thoroughbred horse.
Orme, C.E. and Harris, R.C., 1997. Acta physiologica scandinavica, 159(2), pp.179-185.

Assessment of glycosaminoglycan concentration in equine synovial fluid as a marker of joint disease.
Palmer, J.L., Bertone, A.L. and McClain, H., 1995. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 59(3), p.205.

Animal models for osteoarthritis: processes, problems and prospects.
Pritzker, K.P., 1994. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 53(6), p.406.

Systematic review of the management of canine osteoarthritis.
Sanderson, R.O., Beata, C., Flipo, R.M., Genevois, J.P., Macias, C., Tacke, S., Vezzoni, A. and Innes, J.F., 2009. Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association, 164(14).

Tolerance and biological activity of pentosan polysulfate after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration for ten days in human volunteers.
Sie, P., Albarede, J.L., Robert, M., Bouloux, C., Lansen, J., Chigot, C., Correll, S., Thouvenot, J.P. and Boneu, B., 1986. Thrombosis and haemostasis, 55(1), pp.86-89.

Metabolism of [3H] pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) in healthy human volunteers.
Simon, M., McClanahan, R.H., Shah, J.F., Repko, T. and Modi, N.B., 2005. Xenobiotica, 35(8), pp.775-784.

A multicentre clinical study of the efficacy of sodium pentosan polysulfate and carprofen in canine osteoarthritis (osteoarthrosis).
Smith, J.G., Hannon, R.L., Brunnberg, L., Gebski, V. and Cullis-Hill, D., 2002. Berlin, Germany-Veterinærmoetet, pp.123-130.

Intra-articular therapy in osteoarthritis.
Uthman, I., Raynauld, J.P. and Haraoui, B., 2003. Postgraduate medical journal, 79(934), pp.449-453.

Effects of pentosan polysulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.
Ghosh, P., Edelman, J., March, L. and Smith, M., 2005. Current therapeutic research, 66(6), pp.552-571.

The horse as a model of naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
McIlwraith, C.W., Frisbie, D.D. and Kawcak, C.E., 2012. Bone and Joint Research, 1(11), pp.297-309.

Evaluation of intramuscularly administered sodium pentosan polysulfate for treatment of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in horses.
McIlwraith, C.W., Frisbie, D.D. and Kawcak, C.E., 2012. American journal of veterinary research, 73(5), pp.628-633.

Evaluation of topically administered diclofenac liposomal cream for treatment of horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. American journal of veterinary research, 70(2), pp.210-215.
Frisbie, D.D., McIlwraith, C.W., Kawcak, C.E., Werpy, N.M. and Pearce, G.L., 2009.

Favourable dermal penetration of diclofenac after administration to the skin using a novel spray gel formulation.
Brunner, M., Dehghanyar, P., Seigfried, B., Martin, W., Menke, G. and Müller, M., 2005. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 60(5), pp.573-577.

A method for establishing class III medical device equivalence: sodium hyaluronate (GenVisc 850) for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
Doros, G., Lavin, P.T., Daley, M. and Miller, L.E., 2016. Medical Devices (Auckland, NZ), 9, p.205.

Effect of exogenous hyaluronic acid on joint function in experimentally induced equine osteoarthritis: dosage titration studies.
Gingerich, D.A., Auer, J.A. and Fackelman, G.E., 1981. Research in veterinary science, 30(2), pp.192-197.

Assessment of glycosaminoglycan concentration in equine synovial fluid as a marker of joint disease.
Palmer, J.L., Bertone, A.L. and McClain, H., 1995. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 59(3), p.205.

Hyaluronate and large molecular weight proteoglycans in synovial fluid from horses with various arthritides.
Tulamo, R.M., Houttu, J., Tupamäki, A. and Salonen, M., 1996. American journal of veterinary research, 57(6), pp.932-937.


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